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Vw transporter ply lining templates
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In order to understand the influence of dislocations on doping and compensation in Al-rich AlGaN, thin films were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on different templates on sapphire and low dislocation density single crystalline AlN. AlGaN grown on AlN exhibited the highest conductivity, carrier concentration, and mobility for any doping concentration due to low threading dislocation related compensation and reduced self-compensation. The onset of self-compensation, i.e., the "knee behavior" in conductivity, was found to depend only on the chemical potential of silicon, strongly indicating the cation vacancy complex with Si as the source of self-compensation. However, the magnitude of self-compensation was found to increase with an increase in dislocation density, and consequently, AlGaN grown on AlN substrates demonstrated higher conductivity over the entire doping range.
Relying on Al-activated root oxalate secretion, and internal detoxification and accumulation of Al, buckwheat is highly Al resistant. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these processes are still poorly understood. It is well-known that root apex is the critical region of Al toxicity that rapidly impairs a series of events, thus, resulting in inhibition of root elongation. Here, we carried out transcriptome analysis of the buckwheat root apex (0-1 cm) with regards to early response (first 6 h) to Al stress (20 μM), which is crucial for identification of both genes and processes involved in Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms. We obtained 34,469 unigenes with 26,664 unigenes annotated in the NCBI database, and identified 589 up-regulated and 255 down-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under Al stress. Functional category analysis revealed that biological processes differ between up- and down-regulated genes, although 'metabolic processes' were the most affected category in both up- and down-regulated DEGs. Based on the data, it is proposed that Al stress affects a variety of biological processes that collectively contributes to the inhibition of root elongation. We identified 30 transporter genes and 27 transcription factor (TF) genes induced by Al. Gene homology analysis highlighted candidate genes encoding transporters associated with Al uptake, transport, detoxification, and accumulation. We also found that TFs play critical role in transcriptional regulation of Al resistance genes in buckwheat. In addition, gene duplication events are very common in the buckwheat genome, suggesting a possible role for gene duplication in the species' high Al resistance. Taken together, the transcriptomic analysis of buckwheat root apex shed light on the processes that contribute to the inhibition of root elongation. Furthermore, the comprehensive analysis of both transporter genes and TF genes not only deep our understanding on the responses of
Copper surfaces possess efficient antimicrobial effect. Here, we reported that copper surfaces could inactivate Candida albicans biofilms within 40 min. The intracellular reactive oxygen species in C. albicans biofilms were immediately stimulated during the contact of copper surfaces, which might be an important factor for killing the mature biofilms. Copper release assay demonstrated that the copper ions automatically released from the surface of 1 mm thick copper coupons with over 99.9% purity are not the key determinant for the copper-mediated killing action. The susceptibility test to copper surfaces by using C. albicans mutant strains, which were involved in efflux pumps, adhesins, biofilms formation or osmotic stress response showed that als1/als1 and als3/als3 displayed higher resistance to the copper surface contact than other mutants did. The intracellular concentration of copper ions was lower in als1/als1 and als3/als3 than that in wild-type strain. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of copper transporter-related gene, CRP1, was significantly increased in als1/als1, als3/als3, suggesting a potential role of ALS1 and ALS3 in absorbing ions by regulating the expression of CRP1 This study provides a potential application in treating pathogenic fungi by using copper surfaces and uncovers the roles of ALS1 and ALS3 in absorbing copper ions for C. albicans. FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
In recent years, major developments in the field of inflammatory pathophysiology have clearly shown that arthritis, diabetes, intestinal bowel diseases, and obesity, which affect many people around the world, are essentially inflammatory in nature. Different anti-inflammatory drugs have been used to treat these conditions. Some people are able to take these drugs without difficulty, yet others experience negative side effects. Hence, the search for new, natural anti-inflammatory alternatives has rapidly increased in recent years. Evidence has shown that food protein-derived peptides may be one alternative for treating inflammatory diseases. Peptides are encrypted in food proteins, can be released under hydrolysis conditions, and do not cause adverse effects. Despite limited information on the mechanism of action of peptides, in vitro and animal model studies have demonstrated their potential anti-inflammatory activity. Several in vitro studies have demonstrated that peptides can inhibit different pathways of inflammation processes such as that of the nuclear factor kappalight- chain of activated B cells (NF-κB). They can also induce the production of nitric oxide synthase (iNOs) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) as well as influence PepT1 and CaRS, the transporters of peptides to the gastrointestinal tract that are responsible for the absorption of dietary peptides in the intestine. However, contradictory evidence has been reported in clinical assays. Hence, in this review, we present the latest research on the anti-inflammatory activity of food protein-derived peptides and provide future perspectives on the use of peptides as potential natural sources of therapeutic treatments. Copyright Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Antibacterial drugs with novel scaffolds and new mechanisms of action are desperately needed to address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance. The periplasmic oxidative folding system in Gram-negative bacteria represents a possible target for anti-virulence antibacterials. By targeting virulence rather than viability, development of resistance and side effects (through killing host native microbiota) might be minimized. Here, we undertook the design of peptidomimetic inhibitors targeting the interaction between the two key enzymes of oxidative folding, DsbA and DsbB, with the ultimate goal of preventing virulence factor assembly. Structures of DsbB--or peptides--complexed with DsbA revealed key interactions with the DsbA active site cysteine, and with a hydrophobic groove adjacent to the active site. The present work aimed to discover peptidomimetics that target the hydrophobic groove to generate non-covalent DsbA inhibitors. The previously reported structure of a Proteus mirabilis DsbA active site cysteine mutant, in a non-covalent complex with the heptapeptide PWATCDS, was used as an in silico template for virtual screening of a peptidomimetic fragment library. The highest scoring fragment compound and nine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for DsbA binding and inhibition. These experiments discovered peptidomimetic fragments with inhibitory activity at millimolar concentrations. Although only weakly potent relative to larger covalent peptide inhibitors that interact through the active site cysteine, these fragments offer new opportunities as templates to build non-covalent inhibitors. The results suggest that non-covalent peptidomimetics may need to interact with sites beyond the hydrophobic groove in order to produce potent DsbA inhibitors.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a primary brain malignancy characterized by high morbidity, invasiveness, proliferation, relapse and mortality, is resistant to chemo- and radiotherapies and lacks effective treatment. GBM tumors undergo metabolic reprograming and develop anti-apoptotic defenses. We targeted GBM with a peptide derived from the mitochondrial protein voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), a key component of cell energy, metabolism and apoptosis regulation. VDAC1-based cell-penetrating peptides perturbed cell energy and metabolic homeostasis and induced apoptosis in several GBM and GBM-derived stem cell lines. We found that the peptides simultaneously attacked several oncogenic properties of human U-87MG cells introduced into sub-cutaneous xenograft mouse model, inhibiting tumor growth, invasion, and cellular metabolism, stemness and inducing apoptosis. Peptide-treated tumors showed decreased expression of all tested metabolism-related enzymes and transporters, and elevated levels of apoptotic proteins, such as p53, cytochrome c and caspases. Retro-Tf-D-LP4, containing the human transferrin receptor (TfR)-recognition sequence, crossed the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via the TfR that is highly expressed in the BBB to strongly inhibit tumor growth in an intracranial xenograft mouse model. In summary, the VDAC1-based peptides tested here offer a potentially affordable and innovative new conceptual therapeutic paradigm that might overcome GBM stemness and invasiveness and reduce relapse rates. PMID:28412744